Nipah Outbreak

Short Note

      • Viral infection (Henipavirus)
      • The natural host of the virus are fruit bats of the Pteropodidae Family, Pteropus genus.
      • Infect both human & animal
      • Fatality rate – 50- 75%
      • There is no vaccine available as of now
      • First outbreak in 1998 (Kampung Sungai Nipah, Malaysia) isolated in 1999
      • Transmission type – intermediate host (Pigs, 1998), Human to human (India Case), date palm sap etc.
      • Twice outbreak specific to India – last report was in 2007 and now in May, 2018
      • Symptoms varies from no symptoms to acute respiratory syndrome

http://www.who.int/csr/disease/nipah/Global_NiphaandHendraRisk_20090510.png?ua=1

About the Disease

  • Nipah virus (NiV) infection is a newly emerging zoonosis that causes severe disease in both animals and humans.
  • The natural host of the virus are fruit bats of the Pteropodidae Family, Pteropus genus.
  • NiV was first identified during an outbreak of disease that took place in Kampung Sungai Nipah, Malaysia in 1998.
    • On this occasion, pigs were the intermediate hosts.
  • However, in subsequent NiV outbreaks, there were no intermediate hosts.
  • In Bangladesh in 2004, humans became infected with NiV as a result of consuming date palm sap that had been contaminated by infected fruit bats.
  • Human-to-human transmission has also been documented, including in a hospital setting in India.

  • NiV infection in humans has a range of clinical presentations, from asymptomatic infection to acute respiratory syndrome and fatal encephalitis.
  • NiV is also capable of causing disease in pigs and other domestic animals.
  • Prelims Fact There is no vaccine for either humans or animals.
  • The primary treatment for human cases is intensive supportive care.

Key facts

  • Nipah virus infection in humans causes a range of clinical presentations, from asymptomatic infection (subclinical) to acute respiratory infection and fatal encephalitis.
  • The case fatality rate is estimated at 40% to 75%. This rate can vary by outbreak depending on local capabilities for epidemiological surveillance and clinical management.
  • Nipah virus can be transmitted to humans from animals (such as bats or pigs), or contaminated foods and can also be transmitted directly from human-to-human.
  • Fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family are the natural host of Nipah virus.
  • There is no treatment or vaccine available for either people or animals. The primary treatment for humans is supportive care.
  • The 2018 review of the WHO list of Blueprint priority diseases indicates that there is an urgent need for accelerated research and development for the Nipah virus.

 Outbreak Regions-

https://i0.wp.com/www.who.int/csr/disease/nipah/Global_NiphaandHendraRisk_20090510.png

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